Obma dha whei goz 'An Garrak' rag kidniadh an vledhan 2006
An Garrak ew jornal rag diskiblon an tavaz Kernûak
An Garrak is a magazine for learners of Cornish.
Ma 12 vollan dha'n An Garrak ma :
Whei evorion a dê crêv heb shugar ha whei debrorion an dezan saffern, owriak ha sawrak; Whei mibbion ha mirhaz Pow Kernow, kekeffriz en pow ha pelha. Gon kescowetha en powiow erol awêdh. Whei clappiers an tavaz Kernûak, an lacka berra amesk an gwelha, tîz en crêz ago younknath ha' rina côth ha gwadn. Therama screfa dha whei andelha, abera dha cyberspâs, kekeffriz bian ha braoz, na vern goz menz; na amownt stât goz Kernûak noneil mar medo whei moaz pelha:
Therama quatia ter vedo whei cowaz pleasur lowar en redia An Garrak. Na vêdh moy dillez war baper rag ma computer dha brossa radn ahano lebmen. A' rina nag ez dodhanz e-mail el per dhâ gurra dêan aral dh'e argrafa. Gwelha whâth, na dâl dhewh pea travith, andelha. Nag ew kerra vel screfa war vôz an petti. Na vêdh callish da redia noneil, rag therama whilaz da screfa tacklow aiz gen gerriow ha lavarow a vêdh da lêz et agoz bownaz kenevra dêdh: goz booz, goz dewaz, goz looar, goz choy, goz whêl, goz tîz, goz carenja ha goz whanz (!)...
ha pandra ez whâth?...
an kedhlow, an nawodhow, an awel, an gwêl... ha menz ez en bownaz benen po dêan heb whilaz re bell warlerh tacklow callish nag ew da lêz.
Ha pandra rigave nakevi? Pandr'ez obma na blêg dha whei? Mars ew dâ po drôg, lavaro dhem rag fra. Pana nowedhis ez gena whei? Piua benak a venja screfa tabm a vêdh per welcum genam, deveri! Lavaro dhem, kenz ez hêdhi, me agoz pidg, dha nowedhis keveris ha'th whanz.
Gen ol an colan ve, tîz vâz, keveris ha'n lonath ve, ha'm avi, ha dyvers organs erol, vel skeffanz ha pancreas ha glâs,
An Garrak is no longer published on paper but you can print your own copy, supply copies for friends without e-mail, post bits on the net, save it at home and forward it to others... and all for nothing.
Et agoz Looar An idhiow, Hedera helix (Sowznak: ivy).
Rag fra plantia idhiow et agoz looar? An idhiow vedn afîna goz looar en vledhan a hêz, kekeffriz hav ha gwav. Aiz ew gurra idhiowan dha tevi ha crambla war vôz po trellis der vaner crêv ha bewak. Ma hei 'quêtha an doar bedn winnaz awêdh. Hei vedn glena ort kebmez a dra ew hagar ha disliu, vel kearn (concrete) looz ha brickez noath. Comero wîth an rediors; Na dâl dhewh dewez an creffa sort a idhiow rag an drailiers vedn hêdhaz bis en iganz lâth po dêg warn iganz.
Ma liaz ehan a ginda, keveris bian ha broaz, mala whei dewez warlerh menz goz looar. Whei ell dewez an diffranz sortow delkiow liuez awêdh, glâz clêr po glâz tewal, hanter liu-dehen po melen, delkiow denjak po delkiow moy rônd. An ehan glâz ha dehen, Hedera 'sagittifolia variegata,' vedn hêdhaz bis en 2m po diu ha dâ an doar. 'Köninger,' 'Mapple Leaf,' 'Pedata,' 'Wingerrsberg' as tevas pemp biz dha'n delkian.
Ma an idhiow florishia en skeaz ha howl keveriz. Hei vedn drei tabm tekter dha'n cornal tewal ha yên. Na whâth, ma oadhom dha'n rina deaw-liu cowaz gulow lowar an howl mal boaz spladn go liu. A' rina dodhanz delkiow bian a vêdh dâ en pot po looar-mein. 'Rima vedn crambla war trellis awêdh. Andelha ma radn a kîl bushez anodhanz.
En gwainton ma'n edhen bian a moaz berha an idhiow dha wîl go neithiow. Me rîg gwelaz fatel ma 'n gylvadnaz ha edhen bian erol kîl ago neithow adhelhar dha'n idhiow na vonz praidh dha câth. Ter mîz Gwedngala ha mîz Diu mownz 'tebri go grean ha'n delkiow tew vedn go gwîtha bedn awel yên en termen an gwav.
Comero wîth na whâth, an lowarthars frêth; na dâl dhewh gurra idhiow da grambla war goz gwîth rag own go ladha. Poyson ew keniffer radn an idhiow, delkiow, grean ha barrow.
Edhan an mîz
AN KIDGAK Larus ridibundus pl kidgogaz (Sowznak: Black-Headed Gull).
Hanow: Ma an zîra ve lavaral ''kidgak,'' andelha, buz an edhan ma vêdh henwez ''scaraweet'' en Sillan ha'n hanow na alja boaz devedhez a edn gêr vel scraw* +ik* neb ew an hanow en Breten Vian. Nag ew ''kidgak'' pell an gêr 'kiddaw' a ve recordez gen John Ray rag ''guillemot.'' Ma kên gêr dhên, ''goolan/ gûlan'' ew gwell rag kebmez ez a edhen braoz, vel an ''Herring Gull'' ha'n ''Black-backed Gull.'' An gêr na ew tednez a gon tradicion nei hag a vêdh gwelez war an map hedhiu vel ''Gulland Rock.'' Henew ''The Gullan'' po ''The Gulland'' rag' nei. Nei dâl remembra fatel ve comerez an gêr Sowznak ''gull'' a gon tavaz nei. Ma whâth deaw hanow en Kernow, ''tarrak/ tarrok'' a ve recordez gen John Ray rag an edhan ma po ''kittiwake,'' ha ''madrik'' a alja boaz devedhez a ''mâb + tarrak.'' Piu a oar?
Rag gudhvaz pêth vo e venz ha e liu ha e vownaz, redio hebma.
Menz: 35-38 cm en hester.
Liu: Looz e gîl ha e skilli. Gwidn e vrodn ha e godna. Pedn diu chocklat pe teffa hav. Gwidn e bedn en gwav, dodha buz tabm diu adhelhar dha bup lagaz.
Gylvin ha treyz rooz.
Kirthen: Ma e tregaz dro dha'n moar lebma vo lidn, hayl, lidgak po treath. Ma e gwîtha kenz dha'n morrab izal.
Booz: Keveris kîg ha lozow. Henew puscaz ha gûbman en radn vrossa buz scullion mabdêan ha mostedhaz a vêdh debrez awêdh. Jei vedn doaz en parkow bedn gwav rag dha whilaz bulik ha prevaz.
Oyow: 3 oy. A rina vian vedn gara an neith ouja 26-28 dêdh.
seabird(n): edhan môar; I have seen the rocks where the gulls and other sea-birds make their nests: me rîg gwelaz an carnow idgi (normally lebma) an gullez ha'n edhen môar aral kîl ago neithow (Lhuyd)
sea-gull(n): (gen) gulla(m)pl gullez; gulan(f)pl gulednaz; (black-headed) kidgak(m)pl kidgogaz (DMK); scarawit/ scarret(m)-az (d)(E gull <C); madrak(m)-ogaz (d); (or shearwater) tarrak/ tarrok(m)-ogaz (Ray)
Pa dhe an edhan môar dha'n cooz
Hei dhora dowr en dadn e throoz;
Pa vedn moaz arta dha'n môar
Ma awel têg war dhowr ha doar.
Et agoz Kegen: Victual drez ehan.
Dâ ew gena ve (ha gena whei awêdh?) debri chocklat. Henew chocklat gwîr, deveri. Nag ew dâ genam an pêth ew gwrez a soa heb lowar a chocklat etta. Me 'venja kenz chocklat diu, 70% a stoff chocklat etta po moy, an pêth ew gwelha ol rag 'on ehaz awêdh. Ma dodha tâst delicyous ha wherow.
Obma therama commendia nepeth ew aiz lowar dha fittia ha delicius dha dhebri:
DEHEN CHOCKLAT AN VOARN. Tabm delicous drez ehan!
Rag 6 dêan. Termen da fittia: 15 min. Termen en voarn 35 min. termen dha wortoz: 4 ear.
Rêz ew cowaz: Canz gramm a chocklat diu wherow. Pemp melen oy. Iganz cl a leath. Iganz cl a dhehen. 80 gramm a shugar (vel bleaz). Hanter lôas bian a cinamon (vel bleaz). Iganz gramm 'manin.
Expressing preferences (examples above).
Me a venja kenz...
Gwell ew genam / Gwell ew gena ve....
You may remember this song we used to sing in class:
Debri bara noweth meaz an foarn
Debri puscaz noweth meaz an moar
Debri sevi noweth meaz an gweal
Debri tettez noweth meaz an looar
Debri oyow noweth meaz an yar
Debri aval noweth meaz an jarn
Debri meal noweth meaz an cawal
Debri tabm an peath ew da, eva badna genez magata
Gwîr po gow? : Jowan ha Peder.
Thera Jowan ha Peder a kerraz en cooz periganz gwelaz diu venen fettow têg a toaz tua anjei en crêz an vownder. Medh Jowan: ''Miro whei ort an diu venen hanz. A niel, melen e bleaw ew a wrêg ha e ben ew a mestrez.''
''Ria, reva!'' a greiaz Peder, ''Marth ew genam. An contrari ew an cas gena ve. An voez diu e bleaw ew a wrêg ve ha'n venen aral, melen e bleaw, ew a mestrez.''
<r> has a number of values, most of which were recently heard in West Cornish Dialect. The burred <r> of Mid and East C is not appropriate (This has advanced westwards in recent times). Neither is the mute r of RP or the strongly trilled r of Spanish.
Initial <r> is usually as in English, but may be [hr] in strongly emphasized monosyllables. Lhuyd described hearing this sound occasionally in words like 'rag' and thought that it had been more common formerly.
As unstressed final or in an internal position (other than between vowels or before final th or dh) <r> is weak [ř] . Not burred as in SW E. In St.Ives English this weak sound may become silent on occasions (RG also notes Penwith paj, paju, paji from pajer/ padger) but since our written sources retain final <r> we should assume that this wasn't silent in 1700. Note, however, forms where internal <r> may be lost: metessen/ martezan. As stressed final, after a long vowel, <r> is similar to pron in Irish E [ŕ]. mear, gwîr, fîr, tîr
Between vowels <r> and <rr> are briefly and lightly trilled, as traditional in St.Ives (herring, parafin etc) and some other coastal parts of Penwith where Cornish was last spoken. This r also occurs after a consonant and before a vowel, especially in stressed syllables, (St.Ives: brought, shipwright). A similar sound may be heard in some rural dialects of French and, locally, in the Breton of Mor-Bihan. Use it when you say An Garrak.
MODERN CORNISH : STANDARD SPELLING
The Cornish Language Council (Cussel an Tavaz Kernûak) has a standard spelling drawn from our historical literature and the work of Edward Lhuyd. An Garrak uses this spelling.
This standard follows discussions with Richard Gendall and reference is made to his 'Notes on Pronunciation,' (2006). The decisions follow debate within the Cornish Language Council. Thanks also to Jowan Pengilly and Sharon Lowenna.
The aims of this standard:
a) Easy to learn and use.
b) Helpful for achieving good pronunciation .
c) Close to attested forms of Modern/ Late Cornish spelling.
d) Closer to other forms of revived Cornish, allowing communication and collaboration.
The term Late Cornish is often used disparagingly. I continue to use it, however, although others prefer Modern Cornish (ModC), the name applied at the time of Edward Lhuyd's visit in 1700. The Oxford scholar and native Welsh speaker was invited to Cornwall by Cornish people engaged in documenting the language and trying to retain it. He spent four months in Cornwall with a team of trained researchers, publishing Cornish material in his Archaeologia Britannica (1709), a foundation for Celtic studies. This followed William Scawen's plea for people to write in Cornish and reverse its decline. Scawen's brother-in-law, John Keigwyn was already engaged in study, as was Nicholas Boson. Both corresponded with and influenced Lhuyd who developed a phonetic notation that was a forerunner to the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is tempting to trace part of the basis for Lhuyd's spelling in the writing of N.Boson. Boson and Keigwyn supplied Lhuyd with most of his vocabulary. NB used an innovative style, with probable F and L touches (He went to school in France). JK used a style, sometimes said to be archaic, that is close to early writing (for example W.Jordan 1611). Both of these styles show greater economy than most contemporary writers.
After Lhuyd's death in 1709, the Cornish writers (WG, TT, JB, OP) drew upon his orthography, mixing it with naïve, English-based styles. There are even examples from OP who had criticized Lhuyd in a letter to WG (1711). A few examples from TT come close to an economic system, adapted for modern use but the impression is of an unfinished project, its adherents unable to complete the task once their more able mentors were gone and against the rapid loss of native speakers. Their surviving work did, however, make the subsequent study and revival possible. In the 1740s William Borlase produced his C vocabulary in an adapted Lhuydian spelling. Had the language remained in general use, this style might have been standardized further. In the event it was used for study, even influencing the spelling of some place-names. It was drawn from the work of a key founder of Celtic studies, an early Enlightenment figure who did for C what Johnston was unable to do for E a century later. Lhuyd has influenced the orthography of other languages including Hungarian, and traces remain in the IPA. His <tsh> even appears in Zulu, codified by William Colenso, a student of C. Elements occur in the work of antiquaries and philologists throughout the 18th, 19thand early 20th centuries (Borlase, Jago, Pryce, Williams, Hall -Jenner's informant). It's part of the continuous thread of study that, with oral tradition, links us to historical C. This tradition, rooted in the work of Lhuyd and his Cornish colleagues, influenced the spelling of early 20thcentury work until it was largely swept away in the 1930s.
This CLC's spelling advances the unfinished Modern Cornish Project launced by Scawen and provides an orthography compatible with our pronunciation. It is close to Lhuyd, his interpreters and imitators. Like TT's later writing, it is post-Lhuydian in translating his phonetic symbols into practical graphemes drawn from native sources and it is radical in its economy and in use of some of Lhuyd's inovations. It's conservative, however, in taking attested native spellings and reconciling them with Lhuyd, as attempted by TT. It retains features we find attractive in the naïve style of WR or the more considered work of NB but is economic and consistent. It is well-suited to our needs as learners and teachers. It is broadly phonetic but that is compromized by the desire to remain close to attested forms.
This revision retains a manageable degree of disorder and irregularity. It doesn't attempt, as CC does, to imagine and impose order where there wasn't any. The warts and beauty spots are still there. This is phonetic rather than phonemic. Individual morphemes may be spelt differently according to their position (Thus pedn/ pen- etc not the misleading CC penn everywhere). The phonetic base is that of the early modern period, close to that of our oral tradition. This is important if Cornish people are to have a sense of ownership and if the revived language is to fit with our cultural tradition. This spelling avoids writing two or three sounds in the same way but does not appoint one grapheme for each sound. To do so would move us too far from historical spelling. The CLC rejects this feature of CC and the extreme Celtic purism applied to vocabulary. We celebrate the hybridity of our language and identity and the richness of the oral tradition that connects us to the language of our recent ancestors.
The target date for pronunciation is c1660-70, the period of reference for Lhuyd and his collaborators who used NB's earlier writing. NB (1634-c1690) too, had the Cornish of his childhood in mind, c1650. In producing a standard, it is necessary to draw upon sources written between c1575 (J.Tregear) and c1776 (W.Bodinar) so 1670 is a central point. This moment predates the death of the last monoglots (c1715) and bases our standard on a language that was robust and spoken in communities across W Cornwall. It is, however, close to the pronunciation of the terminal speakers (c1777-1800) and semi-speakers (c1891).
Most of 17th and 18th century C is in homely English-based styles that are very informative for study but irregular. They have the attraction of being familiar from place-names and writers often made great efforts to spell out sounds. Despite the tendancy of critics to homogenize this writing, the two dozen or so individuals concerned wrote in disparate styles and our earlier attempts to produce a pick-and-mix standard from their attested spellings did not adequately distinguish the vowels in particular. Lhuyd's orthography, by contrast, is born of the early Enlightenment drive to analyze, classify and represent information clearly and rationally. It provides the foundation for an ordered, practical spelling using native contemporary native graphemes in place of his phonetic symbols. This practice was sanctioned by immitation.
A couple of details:
Circumflex: Lhuyd used a circumflex to mark vowel length â, ê, î, ô, û . This was sometimes used by native writers before his visit. It was used in C studies and vocabularies throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Nance represented it as a flat bar in his dictionary (1938). UCR continues this practice. This standard also uses the circumflex for some pure, long vowels. In daily practice it may be ignored, but it features in courses and dictionaries. Long vowels occur in stressed syllables, particularly monosyllables.
Schwa: Many unstressed, short vowels become schwa (the obscure vowel of o in Helston), especially initially (but not in prefix adermen, adhiuedhaz etc), in unstressed final –al, -el, -ar, -er, -ur, as well as in some stressed syllables (Grammatical suffixes, including infinitives and past participles, and prepositional prefixes keep their full value). Lhuyd represented this as a <y> with a dot over it, especially when stressed. His testimony is particularly important when it comes to stressed examples. Later writers frequently retained his <y> without the dot. This revision relies on stress to identify schwa, as do other current forms of spelling. That is a weakness but using <y> throughout would transform the appearance of C and move us further from other forms. It would also make it hard to spot links between words and identify their etymology. In historical writing <y> is something of a default letter or joker, used to represent a number of sounds. This standard favours <y> or <u> for schwa, where attested, but <a><e><i><o> may also represent this sound. This is an important mispronunciation problem to be addressed in teaching.
Teyr Edhan Vian
gen Bob Marley
Three Little Birds, a song by Bob Marley
Na berth che dowt, sôs, a dra vithel
Kenevra tra en bêz, vêdh rial dâ,
Na berth che dowt, sôs, a dra vithel
Kenevra tra en bêz vêdh rial dâ.
Me 'savaz en metten,
Golow an howl spladn.
Teyr edhan vian,
en toll an darraz,
'cana canow whêg
gen melodi pur ha gwîr
'cana, obma a messach da che, per wîr.
Thera ve teski Kernûak!
Whei el cowaz an baner ma dhurt Robbie Wright.
Flag available as a sticker from Robbie, Carharrack
Clickyo obma: www.robbiewright.com
Also available: Learners’ C.D. (78 min) + booklet (gen leavow Annie Brown, Gus Williams, Neil Kennedy). 8 penz + post
From An Garrak:
An Garrak produces free or low-cost, print on demand materials and supplies electronic texts that are adaptable and searchable. The following are available in electronic form (and on-line soon) with permission to print individual copies:
-Gerlever Cutt: As pdf (under construction but available).
-Deskanz Nôz, N.Kennedy 1997: Still available as hardcopy on request (7 pounds + pp but free in electronic form)
-Gero nei deski Kernuak - Rod Lyon (Course for beginners)
-Cornish Notes for Beginners, N. Kennedy. Hard copy or free electronic form.
Edn Mason Dibredar.
Edn dêan a gon pleaw a dhetermiaz da dhereval chei-glow rag e vâb. Lebmen, an dêan'na o deskez dâ en pêth an whêl buyldia ha ol an sompel et e gever. Ev oya per dhâ an pêth dha wîl rag sertan. Mason a gawl o ha nowedh anneilez a'n lavur. Gen e rêv hîr ha e lo ledan, êv a dhallathaz abera dha'n whêl der vaner cudnik lowar. Ev a rîg an mêan-lear gen kern (concrete) crêv ha ternôz ve derevez an vozow awêdh, bis en padger trooz en hester. Spladn o deveri, cumpaz ha pedrak e favour. E gontravegion a dremenaz en lavaral fatel o têg. “Brav ober dâ ew hedna,” medh anjei.
Mester Meadows, rag andelha 'via gelwez an mason cudnik... Mester Meadows a zavaz abera dha'n chei-glow rag dha wîl diua dha'n dra ha pa ve gwrêz kenevra tra ha derevez an vozow bis en pemp trooz, ev a welaz fatel o stowt ha na venja gortoz na velha buz e venja moaz trêa rag bolla tê po badna cor, martezan. Nenna, êv a whilaz da crambla mêz an chei buz na alja rag nag o callish whâth an siment ha re euhal o an vozow en neb cas. Sô, e rîg creia e vâb, andelha,
“Keith! Keith!’’ Ha perîg Keith e vâb gwelaz an chei-glow, fatel o cumpaz ha sîr pub tra et e gever, e ve per looan.
’’Rial dra ew hedna, sîr lowar,’’ medh Keith.
“Rial dra, martezan,’’ medh an sîra, “buz lebmen na ellam doaz mêz anodha”
Rêz o dha Keith, ha Tina e wrêg, comeraz Mr. Meadows gen e dhefra ha dadn e gazal ha dereval êv andelha, mêz mêz an chei glow. Ha na vedhama kevez gowak, rum lowta!
Rêz ew pea warlerh menz goz lavarak.
En termen ez passiez, whâth nag ew trei iganz bledhan, nag era kirri-tân dha’n dîz. Thera kirri war an vurrow, sîr lowar, buz nag era car-tân dha bub mâb an vrodn car drew an câs hedhiu en jêdh. Ma car-tân dha genevra onen enurma, per ogaz... kekeffris merhaz ha mibbion, younk ha côth... a' rima bohodgak keveris ha' rina rych... a' rina frantik maga tâ. Nag o andelha oudga an bressel, tabm vith. Rêz ô comeraz an train en dedhiow na.
Andelha Jack a gomeraz an train en Penzans rag moaz tua e scâth era kelmez whâth dha'n kay en Plymouth. Thera hern en termen na ha'n vibbion nei venja go sewia en pub tu, tereba Scotland ha Werdhon terwithiow. Nag ew mar bell moaz dha Plymouth; Rag hedna mâb cotha Jack a eath gonza... ednak bluth; Ha e wrêg geath awêdh, rag hei as tevas whans brauz perna hat noweth ha kebmez a warrow fîn a via kevez en shoppez brauz an cyta... pêth muzzi, mar menno whei, nag ez convedhaz an dra!
Eneth sedhez en train... piff-piff, piff-piff, piff-piff... an jin a dhallathaz tedna an train mêz mêza Stacion Penzans, ha'n "inspector" a dheath war go fidn gen e dabm jin toknez. Thera rêz da Richat pea e doken a brîz lean, deveri, buz e vâb ô bian lowar whâth "Pand' ra ve pea rag a mâb younk, en dadn dowdhak a vludh côth?"
"Hanter prîz, rag ma whâth lavarak cutt dro dodha," medh dean an toknez,
"Rial dra!" medh an tâz looan, "Obma a wrêg ha hei vedn moaz heb cost rag nag ez lavarak vith dodhi!"
Dêan Bohodgak an Puscaz
Me 'venja lavaral dhewh daralla a rigave clowaz adiuedhaz. En termen ez passiez, pell dha'n urma, thera tregaz en Porth Ennis dêan bohodgak an puscaz. Henew da lavaral poscader, mar menno whei. Dêan côth o êv, padgar iganz bludh, gellez looz e vleaw ha cabm e gein. Rag hedna e wrêg a venja êv dha wurra e rôzow adreniuan ha trega war an tîr heb moaz da moar na velha. Lias gweth hei a gomplaz an dra ha war an diua e assentiaz. Nag o pell warlerh pa rîg commencia cavaz blewak e vounaz pub journa ha hîr e dhedhiow war an doar, moaz pub prêz dha'n aulz maljava gwelaz an môar ha'n cokow tua an Garrak Looz ha pelha. Re tho re, sîr lowar ha bedn gwainten êv a bernaz cock maljava dallath pusgetcha arta. Dar! Loander pub journa wos hagar-awel ha yender. An todnow rîg dereval vel menedhiow buz an dêan o looan na whâth. Gonz hedna e wrêg o troublez, perderi pub ear boaz gwedhvaz (widow). Na oya tabm vith an gwelha pêth dha wîl. Hei eath andelha gwelas an proanter, nebun Sowz jentil ha whêg na oya travith an môar, na whâth bounaz an boscaders, rag tho devedhez an tereath crêz. Hen ew telhar creiez 'Bir-ming-ham' en Sowzak nobla. Na orama mar kriga whei clowaz anodha. Me a glowaz fatel ew brossa vel Penzans. Na amownt...
Medh an dean caradow: ''Gero cavow dha wandra,Bednvaz! Na berth dowt, rag me a vedn cowz dodha waran Zîl.''
Andelha, medh an proanter dha'n poscader: ''Fatel rîg merwal goz zira?''
''En moar,'' medh an poscader, ''Bidhi a rîg,''
''Ha fatel rîg merwal goz sira-widn?''
''Bidhez ve a zira-widn awêdh, pecar'a a zira,''
''Ha e zira êv?''
''En môar, awêdh!''
''Ha goz gurhog? (gt gt grandfather),
''En moar, deveri!''
Lebmen 'medh an proanter, ''Nag ez own dha whei boaz bithez awêdh? Na venja whei kenz gurtaz war an doar alebma râg, malja goz dedhow boaz hîr?''
Ha'n poscader a worebaz andelha, lavaral, ''Fatel rîg goz zîra whei merwal?''
''Et e wili,'' medh an proanter.
''Ha goz zîra-widn?''
''Dar! Et e wili, awêdh.''
''Ah!'' medh an poscader côth lebmen: ''Whei venja cuska hanath berra goz gwili, na whâth?!'
SÎNEZ AN ZODIAK
Obma dha whei oll an sompel:
an Horr (ram); an Tarow (bull); Gevellion (twins); An Crang (crab); An Lew (Leo); an Werthiaz (virgin); an Vantol (balance); an Scorpion; an Sethar (sagitarius); an Gavar (goat); an Deger Dowr (aqua); Puscaz (fish)
An vlewan looz.
Ha nei a kerraz war wolaz an moar dha drig,
me welaz drera dhîz buz edn vlewan,
na moy vel onen, mesk an rooz,
apert ha spladn o trelliez looz,
ha chei dhom colan adhysompyaz,
me oya sur dreram cara che;
Ha perthi cô gon promas pell ve gwrêz,
me venja abma dhez ha gudhvaz mar vo crês
pe rama doaz war hêz adro dha che.
Vêdh termen nena trellia looz warbar?
An voez a venja perna yer.
Moez younk têg heb car na par,
a eth dha'n fer da berna yer.
Mabyer, spletyer, grigyer, culiak,
pub yar, diu ar, edhen plevak.
Nag o war e thowl an tarow,
na whâth an beuhaz leath dibarow.
Hei venja cowaz yer hebkên
gen culiak criban rooz, nahên.
Debri oyow o e flegadow,
gen e folat o dêan caradow.
Trukkia bara noweth pebez
berha'n melyn oyow bridgez.
Spladn, Che Steran Vian, Spladn!
Twinkle Twinkle Little Star
Spladn che steran vian spladn,
war an moar ha'n tîr en dadn.
Drez an clowdez, otta che,
carra jooal terlentri.
Spladn che steran vian spladn,
Drez an moar ha'n tor en dadn.
Briv briv davaz dhiu
Baa baa black sheep
Briv briv davaz dhiu, ez dhîz glaon?
Ea, sarra, ea sarra, trei zah lean.
Onen rag an meister,
Onen dh'e wrêg,
onen dha voaz degez hanz dha'n meppik whêg.
REUNIFIED CORNISH: The Single Written Form.
We are all being asked to consider a Single Written Form (SWF) of Cornish for schools and other public uses. This is far from easy but there have been some positive developments. People from the different groups are beginning to talk to each other and explore common ground. This is a separate matter from the standard spelling for writing Late or Modern Cornish but it makes sense for us to have a spelling that is close to the eventual SWF.
Here is a summary of key ATTITUDES that I've heard with comment:
Single Spelling Solutions
1 ''There should be one form and it must be the one I use because it's superior.''
(This cannot succeed without loss of support and damage to unity of purpose, especially when combined with a 'There is no alternative' mentality.)
2 ''There should be a compromise that accommodates all of the groups in a newly-devised spelling.''
(This would need to be carefully managed to avoid a lash-up/ dog's breakfast. The key researchers would have to be involved in the design.)
Plural Spelling Solutions:
3 ''There should be a single spelling for schools and administration that allows learners to progress to an existing standard later.''
(Such a spelling would be unlikely to remain a confined to these domains.)
4 ''All of the forms are valid and individual schools should be able to choose.''
(This ignores the opportunity to reunite the language but it does recognize the validity of differing views. It is unlikely to meet with institutional approval.)
5 ''One form could be used in East Cornwall and another in West Cornwall.''
(Unlikely to succeed, and would be divisive unless the forms were very similar indeed.)
2, 3, 4, 5 are not as mutually exclusive as they appear. A single spelling for schools might be flexible enough to accommodate some of the existing plurality. Breton schools use a single spelling that allows for the expression of regional differences. Here, in Mor-Bihan, it allows different spellings for many words (B example: war/ àr). The question remains ''How much variation could we cope with?'' (C example: esa/ era; tabm/ tamm). Any common spelling would have to accommodate ModC bm, dn, for example. CC mm, nn is not adequate for this. Indeed the rejection of preocclusion in spelling, a feature of our language since before 1500, is part of the same cultural cringe to Breton and Welsh that led Nance to misspell the name of our language as Kernewek.
Common Cornish c1500
Revived Modern Cornish c1700
Unified Cornish: None
Unified Cornish, Revised: c1575-1615
Revising those dates:
Ken George once gave 1575 as the latest date he'd consider but has said he's reluctant because there were fewer phonemes and thus more homophones and minimal pairs. I have argued that the date for RMC should be c1670 based on the retrospective focus of writers in 1700. If CC were to adopt 1575 and RMC 1665 we might construct a flexible standard with a range of pronunciations, less marked than at present and representing the lifespan of a person born c1570 died c1670.
Acceptance of internal plurality. Cornish is a language of choice. Collaboration does not require total uniformity. We might be permissive and flexible enough to recognize diversity and reconcile personal preference with unification. We'd be left with internal codes, much as other languages support a range of registers, jargons, dialects etc. The existing forms would remain in modified forms but would converge. We would develop a shared orthography, allowing internal codes to be represented by minor variation.
How do you say "for a long time":
Poynt a Skianz dhurt lether Nicholas Williams.
(Textual examples in original spelling.)
An Kernûak rag 'for a long time' ew 'termen hîr' heb rag-gorranz vith:
eug gonetheugh termyn hyr OM 1231
my re vewas termyn hyr OM 2345
Boken te a yll laveral pell rag an termyn es passyes ha rag an termen dhe dhoas ewedh. me as gura ny strechyaff pell PA 158c
encressyens ha bewens pel OM 48
fest pel my re'n seruyas ef OM 852
ny's pyrth den mara peys pel OM 1082
bewe pel a wruk yn beys RD 210
Moaz ha braoz:
Our spelling uses the native graphemes <ao> , <oa> and <au> for the vowel in these words. Lhuyd used an upside-down 'a' symbol in his phonetic notation. We could spell all of these words <ao> but I prefer to maintain an etymological distinction. This is a low back vowel and really has two sources:
1 Words like braoz which come from the division of an earlier /a:/ phoneme.
2 Words like moaz and doaz that come from /o:/ type sources.
We spell group 1 as <ao> or <au> were attested and group 2 as <oa> where possible.