Turing

Alan Turing in 1937 showed how any problem having a logical solution can be reduced to a solution based upon a small set of simple instructions.

Shannon

Claude Shannon in 1938 proved that Boolean Algebra (developed in the 1840’s & 50's) could help with practical problems of circuit design.

von Neumann

John von Neumann in 1945, the principal architect of modern digital computers, defined the ability to store both data and program within the same memory system and to include that both data and programs can be altered by the same procedures. He also went as far as differentiating the computation component from the storage component, or as we know them, CPU and RAM.

These concepts form the crux of today's A.I. development hurdles...