sapere aude:

Reclaiming the common sense foundations of knowledge:
Special Relativity: the Einstein Debacle as an instance of the stultification of the intellect by uncritical use of mathematical concepts and methods.


First upload: 16 January 1999
Last revised: 2 January 2019
url: http://home.btconnect.com/sapere.aude/

Continue to: | page 2 | page 3: Critics' analyses of SR mathematics | Archive |



Contents: sapere aude

1. Introduction.
2. Links to groups and archives.
3.. Links to individual critics A-Z.


Contents, page two and three:

page two:
Introduction.
1. SR orthodoxy and Einstein's 1905 Transformation of Coordinates: Mathematics in transit from visualization to blind trust in equations.
2. Einstein's "Simple Derivation".
3. Tower of Babel: On the nature of relativistic effects.

page three:
A brief discussion of critics' arguments: The mathematics of Special Relativity (SR)

Archive:
1. Bibliography.
1.1. Special Relativity.
1.2. General: philosophical, mathematical background.
1.3. Surveys of "state of art".
2. Notes to current argument on my homepage (under construction).

3. Some earlier versions (excerpts) of my page2 - Section 1 (Lorentz Transformation) and Introduction.
4. Cantor's diagonal: an instance of the absurd falliousness of abstract procedure.


1. Introduction to sapere aude:

Reclaiming the common sense foundations of knowledge:
Special Relativity: the Einstein Debacle as an instance of the stultification of the intellect by uncritical use of mathematical concepts and methods.


The sapere aude title of my website echoes the call of the Enlightenment:

Enlightenment is Man's emergence from self-imposed tutelage, that is to say, from the inability to use the intellect without guidance by another. It is self-imposed if its cause does not lie in a deficiency of the intellect but of the courage and determination to use it autonomously. Sapere aude! Have the courage to think! is therefore the motto of the Enlightenment. (I. Kant, Was ist Aufklärung?)

Abstract:The original intent of my website had been to overcome difficulties encountered by critics of Special Relativity (SR) in relating the "equations" in Einstein's 1905 transformation to the text, namely assumptions and definitions concerning pathlengths as constituents of a "lightsphere". According to elementary geometry (to date), "time", in distance measurements, is not a "fourth dimension", a circumstance overlooked by early proponents of the theory and ignored by mathematicians arguing a priori. "Understanding" had also been compromised by the replacement of visual thought by "analytic" procedures, partly on philosophical grounds, partly for reasons of "economy of thought". As the invalidity of the SR transformation is most easily seen in Einstein's 1905 argument it had made sense to ignore the wider context.

Lack of progress in the debate persuades me to place Einstein's 1905 transformation into its background: the origin and nature of a remarkable fallacy, namely that it would make sense to change our assumptions as to the units of measurement of space and time so as to be able to redefine a mere experiental datum (the speed of light) as an a priori universal constant. The interesting role of the background should, however, not persuade critics to ignore Einstein's 1905 argument, for it is only here that, by study of a remarkable series of errors, we are able to recover vital competences lost by the progressive impoverishment of visual thought.


The conflict which theories of relativity had attempted to reconcile had been between

The problem to be solved, as rightly seen by Einstein, is represented by

Fig.1

O--O'------------P

Reconciliation of the conclict had been proposed by the "theory" that O'P differs from its corresponding length in the aether, combined with a redefinition of time measurement ("local time", "retardation", "time-dilation").

For authors and dates of publication of theories see Whittaker; on the unreliability of this account, see Holton (pp.196-202).
The fallacy is evident at once. Defenders claim "relativity" proven by the dependence of atomic clocks upon movement and gravitational potential. Similarly, Einstein (1905) argues that, at least for local events, we may define time by "the position of the small hand of my watch". But this is not how we define or "prove" time. Since time immemorial, the unit of time measurement has been defined on the basis of astronomical periods: year, day. Clocks are devices that can be calibrated to measure the pre-defined unit reliably. (Defenders of the theory do not actually conclude that, where we find "clock retardation", the day or year have become longer or shorter.)

Let me briefly trace the rise of the theory, on the basis of Whittaker's chronology, qualified by Holton. Contradictory results, or interpretations of results, had been present since at least 1800 (Young's undulatory theory), 1845 Stoke's aether-drag theory, Maxwell's 1873 assumption of the aether as rest-frame. (In contrast, 1890, Hertz assumes that the aether is at rest inside ponderable matter.) FitzGerald, according to Lodge's letter in Nature June 1892, had proposed that the dimensions of material bodies are slightly altered when they are in motion relatively to the aether. Lorentz (November 1892) proposes an enlargement of our concepts of space and time and follows FitzGerald; his 1895 Versuch has the today orthodox transformation equations effectively in full, but neglecting powers of v/c above the first (i.e. not including the "Lorentz Factor").

This 1895 form of the transformation had been thought to be insufficiently "rigorous" because the "Lorentz Factor" (b) is not yet explicit. To date, Lorentz' theory is demoted as ad hoc. One overlooks here that the reciprocal factor is, in fact, already implicit in the 1895 form, in consequence of the failure to correct the magnitude of the relative velocity for the changed time-measurement in the moving system. (The reciprocity of the factor in Lorentz' theory, later stated explicitly, places the physical meaning of that theory in doubt, for it implies that material bodies moving relatively to the aether cause a corresponding shrinkage of lengths in the aether.) The entire literature (original texts as well as the secondary literature and including critical texts today) uncritically assumes, and has been adamantly maintaining that assumption, that OO' = vt = vt'. One either takes tacitly for granted, or asserts explicitly, that "the relative velocity must be the same for systems in uniform relative motion"; texts in the philosophy of science declare that this is a fundamental requirement of the "principle of reciprocity". I know of only one author, Miles Mathis, who draws attention to the astounding error. Close attention to Fig.1 above (extended to the left for signals in that direction) gives the "correction" at once, exposing the error responsible for the paradox of "reciprocity"; see my page 2. That is to say, if we correct the error, we find that b = 1 (thus exposing more clearly the true meaning and inapplicability of the direction-dependent "relativistic time-dilation").
There is no need to discuss further Lorentz' own "Lorentz Transformation". To quote Whittaker (op.cit.Vol.II, p.36):
"It is usual to regard Poincaré as primarily a mathematician, and Lorentz as primarily a theoretical physicist: but as regards their contributions to relativity theory, the positions are reversed: it was Poincaré who proposed the general physical principle, and Lorentz who supplied much of the mathematical embodiment. Indeed, Lorentz was for many years doubtful about the physical theory: in a lecture which he gave in October 1910 he spoke of 'die Vorstellung (die auch Redner ungern aufgeben wuerde) dass Raum und Zeit etwas voellig Verschiedenes seien und dass es eine "wahre Zeit" gebe (die Gleichzeitigkeit wuerde dann unabhaengig vom Orte bestehen)'.

A distinguished physicist who visited Lorentz in Holland shortly before his death found that his opinions on this question were unchanged."

Expositions of the meaning of simultaneity can be confusing. The problem arises not in consequence of different time measurement, but because the t'-equation includes a term relating to a distant location. (However, since t is not a "fourth dimension", the "algebraic" form of distance-equations (ct, ct') is misleading: the error is evident as soon we use the "parametric" form of these equations.)
We may now turn our attention to Poincaré. To quote Kline (Mathematical Thought ..., Vol.III, p.1170):
"Poincaré ... is acknowledged as the leading mathematician of the last quarter of the nineteenth and the first part of the twentieth century, and the last man to have had a universal knowledge of mathematics and its applications. He wrote a vast number of research articles, texts and popular articles, which covered almost all the basic areas of mathematics and major areas of theoretical physics, electromagnetic theory, dynamics, fluid mechanics, and astronomy. His greatest work is Les Méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste (3 vols., 1892-1899)."
As regards work on problems of electromagnetic theory, from 1880 to as late as 1900 he had published papers on the application of methods of fluid mechanics to aether theories. Whitrow (op.cit., p.247), in reference to the immense superiority of Poincaré's work on SR in comparison to Einstein's, quotes de Broglie (1951):
"Why did Poincaré fail to advance to the limits of his thought? No doubt this was due to his somewhat hypercritical turn of mind, or perhaps the fact that he was a pure mathematician."
Those of Poincaré's papers which address the "mathematics of SR" (the Lorentz Transformation) may appear baffling, but deliver the explanation: by 1906 he published the form today attributed to Minkowski, not as a mystagogical theory of "wordlines" in "space-time", but as a purely mathematical application of group theory:
ds2 = c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2 = - S(r=1to4)dxr, where x1=x, x2=y, x3=z, 4=ct(-1)1/2.
To quote Morris Kline in reference to mathematicians working on early types of alternative symbolic logic:
"They do not seem to have realized that a formula that is true with one interpretation of the symbols might not be true with another." (op.cit. 1972, p.775 of 1990 OUP paperback edition)
Poincaré, inexcusably for a mathematician, ignores that in pathlength-equations the t is not a "variable" in the algebraic sense but a "parameter", and that the logic of "algebra" is here not applicable. For emphasis in modern texts on the different role of t ("time") in pathlength-equations see Roe and Thwaites. I will discuss this further briefly below. Here we may confine ourselves strictly to Poincaré's role in the rise of SR to orthodoxy. I here follow Whittaker's chronology (Vol.II, pp.30-33); because of Holton's stricture I must state the author of renditions :
Comment: Note that Poincaré, following Lorentz' mathematical argument, assumes that for observers in uniform relative motion the velocity of light is c. The implications of this are more readily evident in Einstein's geometric approach to the transformation; see below.
We may leave behind the background and turn our attention to Einstein's theory, as first presented in his 1905 paper. Herbert Dingle, author of a learned monograph on SR, erudite, experienced and at the "centre of things" at a crucial time, may be taken as an example of the incomprehension of what had been at stake. In his 1972 Science at the Crossroads he describes how Einstein's 1905 "theory" came upon physicists almost by stealth. "Generalized" by Minkowski's in his 1908 4D "space-time" theory, SR was initially known only among a narrow clique of mathematical specialists. (Although Einstein confessed that, after Minkowski's generalization, he did no longer understand his own theory, his later expositions follow Minkowski.) Until Eddington's 1919 "confirmation" - long exposed as a fraud - of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GR), for physticists SR was the theory of Lorentz; nobody therefore paid any attention to Einstein's supposed demonstration, in his 1905 transformation using the classical method, of the unexpected dynamic nature of "empty" space (spontaneous "reciprocal" contraction of lengths), apparently by application of a "relativistic" unit of time-measurement. Dingle's Crossroads book demonstrates the helplessness experienced by the most highly qualified physicists: he attempts to clarify a brief verbal passage of the notoriously illogical Einstein in disregard of the perfectly clear - and farcically invalid - geometric argument and t'-equation of the full set.
The majority of critics seem as clueless as Dingle. For links to protest organisations and individual critics see sections 2 and 3. Numerous critics, having abandoned physics after graduation because of a perception of "inadequacies" in the discipline, have joined protest organizations after retirement. On first reading Einstein's texts, many are so alarmed as to write to universities or governments. In a recent paper, the physicist Peter Sujak list instances of Einstein's incompetence and laments "Einstein's Destruction of Physics and Scientific Principles".
Developments in mathematics have contributed to a progressive incapacitation of physicists which clearly leaves them unable to understand a simple distance calculation (Einstein's pathlengths ct, ct'). Russell, driven by an almost visceral hatred of Euclid, had been most persuasive among those who argued that the visual study of geometry exposes us to the danger of perceptual falsification, and that therefore only abstract symbolic expressions, in disregard of their visual referents, are safe. Mach censures the mathematical trend to replace, as the aim of science, the study of the logic of natural phenomena by the perfection of labour-saving methods ("Werkzeuge").
One might mention here Leibniz' explicit recommendation of his determinants as tools which enable ignorant "slaves" to relieve us of the labour of solving linear equations.

To quote Kline (p.615):

This regression to analysis, while fatally atrophying our geometric sense, has obscured the fundamental difference between the x, y, z (and t) of geometry, on the one hand, and of other branches of mathematics, on the other. We are now ready to look briefly at Einstein's argument. Following his steps closely, we see how the original speculation, by apparent proof of mathematical necessity, turns into the monster of the "Lorentz Transformation". The original speculation had been this. For adherents of the aether-theory, the interferometer experiments had seemed to show that the two-way speed of light relatively to the longitudinal arm of the interferometer (and generally in the space of the earth) is too high by a factor b2 = 1/(1 - v2/c2): what if, in reality, the length l' of this arm (and the earth in its longitudinal direction) were to be shorter, as well as "real" "local time" t' longer than we assume. This explains the oddity why the "transformation" is assumed to apply the required "correction" by a "contraction" of lengths that stretches them, and a "time-dilation" (as in the formula t'=t/b) that shortens "time". (If this sounds confusing: in fact, the "factor", whether >1 or <1, turns out to be = 1, after all. All that maths labour for nothing.)

Einstein commences his transformation by study of the pathlength attained by a ray moving in the positive direction of the x-axis. We may extend Fig.1 to:

Fig.2

Q----------------O--O'------------P

where OP=ct, OQ=-ct, O'P=(c-v)t, O'Q=-(c+v).

Einstein follows earlier practice, as e.g. in Poincaré, of denoting O'P by ct' (similarly, O'Q=-ct'). Einstein exploits the fact that the "Galilean" equations (c-v)t and (c+v)t may be written:

c·(1 - v/c)t and c·(1 + v/c)t or c·t(1 - v/c) and c·t(1 + v/c).

Since O'P=ct' and O'Q=-ct', and if t' = ct'/c, we then have,
for signals to the right t'=t(1-v/c)

and for signals to the left t'=t(1+v/c).

We have thus shifted the anisotropy from the velocity into the time measurement (and thereby effectively turned the c in ct' into a scalar magnitude and the t' into a vector).
This illegitimate use of the parameters t, t' of the distance equations acts as a stimulus for ever more "mathematically sophisticated" alternative theories of time; a note, therefore, on the "meaning" of the t and t'. The t, t' in distance equations do not appear on their own; they "mean" no more than the time of the arrival of the signal at its destination. In reality, there should not be problems of synchronization for "clocks" at rest in their respective systems: they should go at the same rate. The "time"-problems of SR arise because the solution is self-contradictory.

That the shifting of anisotropy from the velocity into time measurement would, impossibly, require one and the same clock to go slow for rays moving in the same direction, but fast for rays moving in the opposite direction, does not distract Einstein from the pursuit of his mathematical goal. Consider also, that in reality, clocks in the "moving" system, all moving with the same speed, would have to record "time" in regard of signals passing through emitted earlier or later and at points not on the x-axis: every clock, thus, is "predicted" to be able to record time at an infinity of different rates, between the extremes (1-v/c) and (1+v/c).

The same "logic" is used in GR: in order to retain the a priori notion of c as a "universal constant", instead of acceleration/deceleration (increase/decrease of the speed of light), we let "time" or "clocks" go fast/slow.
In his first equation after the definition of x' = x - vt, Einstein uses O'P = x' and OQ = x', namely x' = (c-v)t and x' = -(c+v)t in the sense of a fixed length, thus invalidating all that follows.
He tries to obtain the magnitude of the return-path by reflecting the ray at P and thence to return "to the origin of the coordinates". In effect, in that case, P would now be the new "origin" (O2, O'2) of the return-path, where during the interval t as for the outward journey, O' as well O'2 would have shifted further to the right through vt, thus giving us for the pathlength O'2O the same magnitude as for OQ, namely -(c+v)t.
There is no need here to pursue Einstein's 1905 SR derivation much further; for more detail see page 2. After the attempt to find the magnitude of the x'=+/-ct', he "derives" the equations for "rays" in two other directions: y'=ct' and z'=ct' (though different from the equation for x'=ct', the ct' for these two points - intersection of y'-z'=plane with spherical surface - are the same because here x=vt). The summary of his results, in the full "set of equations" (the "Lorentz Transformation"), lists only the solution found for y', z'=0. The well-known "time" equation (complete with the fallacious b), namely
t' = b(t - vx/c2),
reduces therefore to
t' = bt(1 - v/c) when x=ct,
and t' = bt(1 + v/c) when x=-ct.

Worthy of mention are two items:

N.B.: All SR effects involve the b; the "principle of relativity", for systems to be equivalent, required the reciprocity of all these supposed effects. With the 1905 mathematics reducing the b to b=1, all SR effects, as well as the supposed equivalence of systems - vanish into thin air: all that is left is impossible clocks.

In earlier versions I had included discussions of varying length of Minkowski's generalization (1908 and later) of Einsteins

(ct)2 - x2 - y2 - z2 = (ct')2 - x'2 - y'2 - z'2 = 0 [1]

to (ct)2 - x2 - y2 - z2 = (ct')2 - x'2 - y'2 - z'2 = 1. [2]

As Minkowski had already been anticipated by Poincaré (1906), even though university courses are based on Minkowski, we may ignore this excursion into mathematical lunacy.

Kline mentions the tendency of mathematicians to overrate their current work and thus to be carried away by their enthusiasms. Much as to Poincaré SR had been an occasion to extend applications of group theory, to Minkowski who in his early career had specialised in the theory of invariants, [1] would have been a typical invariant problem where the Einstein-Lorentz set (invalid on purely mathematical grounds for the case of physics) would have been an algebraically valid solution. I have put a brief earlier discussion of the absurd "linear" solution into the Archive.
What is left of SR? The claims of mathematical validity and experimental confirmation had rested on misunderstandings that had arisen because of the failure to look closely at Einstein's geometric ("kinematic") argument. The Poincaré-Minkowski hyperboloid excursion into phantasy, from the blunder of forgetting the parametric nature of the equations of geometry and kinematics, had resulted in an algebraically valid argument that has no bearing whatsoever on the supposed "problem" of light propagation. That which has been experimentally confirmed is the Lorentz Factor which does not even exist in SR because it there cancels as soon as a farcical "mistake" is corrected. Einstein's (and Lorentz') wholly other "relativistic time-dilation" - t' = t(1 +/- v/c) - would require clocks to adapt themselves to the direction of light signals.
In experimental "verification" the Lorentz Factor arises when speed assumptions are false: hence the assumption, even among "critics", that "clock-retardation" for two-way signals has been confirmed. Verifications rest on the uncritically accepted relativistic assumption that in all systems in relative uniform motion (e.g. GPS-stations orbiting the Earth) the light-velocity is c. But one finds that this clock-retardation, contrary to SR "predictions", is not "reciprocal". What is retarded here is, of course, the velocity - (c-v) one way but (c+v) the other - resulting in an overall two-way speed of c(1 - v2/c2).
In sum, SR Physics is exactly where it had been before; changes in the use of mathematical arguments have desastrously impeded progress. Early protesters had objected that the "principle of the constancy of light velocity" is a "Bevormundung der Experimentalphysiker". It is also easily overlooked that a "universal" unit of time measurement is fundamental for the metric that underlies even non-Euclidean spaces (without it, vector-algebra, does not "work"). Experimenters today assert that classical methods (Lagrange, Newton) are adequate, and SR as well as GR redundant. Meanwhile, unfortunately, the "constant" c has come to be tied into ever denser loops with other mutually incompatible "universal constants". To quote Prof. Kapuscik:
"One of the most fundamental properties of both Newton's mechanics and Maxwell electrodynamics is the absence of any physical constants in their basic equations. All necessary constants appear only at the stage of applications of these theories to specific phenomena. This is one of the reasons of universality and generality of these theories since physical constants always reflect our ignorance in formulation of physical laws. Therefore primary equations of physics should not contain physical constants at all, including the fundamental ones. Quantum mechanics and general relativity seem to be counterexamples of the above requirement since Schroedinger equation contains both the fundamental Planck constant and the mass of the particle and Einstein equation contains the gravitational constant. It is however possible to suspect that both these great theories may be in some sense secondary and their basic equations may be derived from more fundamental formulations in which all physical constants do not appear."
It is to be hoped that a recovery of elementary skills lost at the time of Einstein might, at least, help us to find a way out of the mess that has piled up in consequence of the servile acceptance of the products of a counter-intuitive mathematics.

In short:

Sapere aude!

Using our intellect without guidance by another - in mathematics as elsewhere - must be foremost in the exercise or our moral capacity.



2. Links to groups and archives (critique of the foundations of physics and of SR).

Natural Philosophers Database, John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society (CNPS).
Gigantic, but difficult to find anything; to facilitate access to critical material, in section 3 below I list selected links to authors' profiles, especially as the websites of older generations of critics are relentlessly diminishing.
CNPS Members

Walter Babins's The general science journal - singular among sites hosted by individual critics.

Kritische Stimmen zur Relativitätstheorie (Ekkehard Friebe and Jocelyne Lopez)

Note the link to the G.O.Mueller projekt hosted by the site.
Ekkehard Friebe: Wissenschaft und Moralische Verantwortung (Archive of publications)

Gegner der Relativitaetstheorie (Robert Markweger's Directory of opponents of the TR).

Dr. Arteha's website is so rich as to demand inclusion here, as also
his Antirelativistic library
and the resource Physical Congress, St. Petersburg (formerly www.physical-congress.spb.ru/), with English links in preparation.
(I am grateful for Dr. Artehas's graceous help with information.)
(Some of the papers presented at the St. Petersburg conferences are also available at http://novamir.org/?page_id=46)

Research Group "Geometry and Physics" (Director: Prof. Umberto Bartocci), Department of Mathematics, University of Perugia, Via Vanvitelli 1, 06100 Perugia, Italy; http://www.cartesio-episteme.net/
For Prof. Bartocci's erudite e-journal Episteme (2000-2004) go to http://itis.volta.alessandria.it/episteme/. (The Episteme-site is often unavailable for long periods, but has tended eventually to turn up again.)
Comment: Note that Prof. Bartocci, a mathematician, declares that in "a mathematical (and therefore theoretical) sense, SR is completely consistent and correct"; see http://www.cartesio-episteme.net/quest.htm.

Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences), List of Authors.

EDITIONS D'ASSAILLY, Jean de Climont dissident list. Publisher: Christian Sutterlin.

Max Planck Insitute for the History of Science, Berlin

For an exhaustive documentation of books and papers critical of SR see the German GOM Project Relativity (pseudonymous G. O. Mueller) - 95 YEARS OF CRITICISM OF THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY (1908-2003) (now expanded to 2012), in particular

In the A-Z list of critics of foundations I refer to lists of typical titles (books, articles, conference papers); because of its size my references to the GOM Project are highly selective. The email correspondence published by Prof. Bartocci is also of interest. References in the A-Z below are as follows:



3. Critics A-Z

In view of their large number (the GOM bibliography - by no means complete - names ca. 1350 authors) I include here only those critics who have published (or participated in events such as conferences) since 1970, or where GOM-Kap.4 contains information about their arguments (summaries, quotations, reviews, comments). My criterium of selection is the defence of common sense (with comment in the case of exceptions).
Please send corrections, and any information you wish to be included, to sapere.aude@btinternet.com. No attachments.

Abramovic, Prof. Dr. Velimir, Serbia and Montenegro
(gsj)

Adey, A.I.A., Technical University, 5604 EE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
(gom4; GE 95f.)

Agathangelidis, Antonis, Thessaloniki 561 22, Greece
(1998f. gom4; GE; gsj)

Ahn, Byoung Ha, Hamden, CT 06518, USA

Alford, Jeff
(gsj)

Allais, Maurice, France
(CNPS)

Alliatta, Guilio
(1921f. gom4+5)

(PDF) Anger, Prof. Dr. Gottfried, Germany
(CNPS)

Antonopoulos, Constantin, Interdisciplinary Department, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 157 73, Greece
(Ap; GE)

Arp, Dr., Halton, Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, 85740 München (Garching), Germany
(CNPS)

Arteha, Dr. Sergey N., Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia
(CNPS; gom4; GE)

Aspden, Dr. Harold, formerly Prof. of Electrical Engineering, University of Southampton, Chilworth, Southampton, SO16 7HZ England
(CNPS; 1960f., 1987 gom4+5; gsj)

Asquith, P.R., Australia
(CNPS; gsj)

Assis, Dr. André K.T., Institute of Physics, State University of Campinas, Brazil
(gom4)

Babin, Walter, Rodney, Canada
(1999f. gom4; CNPS; gsj)

Baer, Günther, Germany
(CNPS; 1993f. gom4+5)

Bailey, Dr. Patrick G., President, Institute for New Energy, Los Altos, CA 94023-0201, USA

Barone, Prof. Michele, Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Centre for Scientific Research "Demokritos", Athens, Greece
(CNPS)

Barth, Gotthard, Austria
(1954f., 96 gom4+5)

Bartocci, Prof. Umberto, Director of the Research Group "Geometry and Physics", Department of Mathematics, University of Perugia, Italy
(gom4; Ap; CNPS)

Becker, Michael, Erlangen, Germany
(1988f. gom4+5)

Beckmann, Petr, Founder-Editor, Galilean Electrodynamics (90), Prof. Em. of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
(1987f. gom4+5; GE)

Bernays, Paul, Germany
(1913f. gom4+5)

Bernstein, Vitaly M., Moscow, Russia
(gom4; GE 00f.)

Biedenkapp, Georg, Germany
(1920 gom4)

Bockris, Dr. John O'M., Prof. Em. of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA

Boersema, Jos, Netherlands

Boersma, Geert, Zwolle, Netherlands
(GE 04, 06)

Bon, T.B., USA

Borchardt, Glenn, Director, Progressive Science Institute, Berkeley, CA 94705-0335, USA
(CNPS)

Bothezat, George de, USA
(1930f. gom4+5)

Bouasse, Henri Pierre Maxime, Paris, France
(1923f. gom4+5)

Bourbaki, Dr. George (Dr. Georg A. Bruenig), DEng, Patent Attorney, 80798 München, Germany
(1990f. gom4+5)

Brandenberger, Dr. H. G. (1927-1955 ETH Zürich), Switzerland
(1962 gom4)

Brinkmann, Karl
(1984 gom4+5)

Brock, Thomas, Germany
(2001 gom4+5)

Broda, Andrzej, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Brösske, Ludwig
(1931, 1959f. gom4+5)

Brown, Dr. G. Burniston, Padstow, Cornwall, PL28 8JS, U.K.
(1941f. gom4+5; gsj)

Browne, H. C.
(1928 gom4)

Brühlmann, Otto, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
(1923f. gom4+5)

Bryant, Steven
(CNPS; GE)

Bucknam, Ralph E., Lebanon, Pennsylvania, USA
(1978 gom4+5)

Budde, E., Germany
(1914 gom4)

Burns, Keivin
(1924 gom4)

Cantrell, William H., Ph.D., ed. IE Magazine

Carpenter, Vincent W., USA

Carroll, Dr. Robert L., Director, R. L. Carroll Institute, Fairmont, VI, USA
(gom4; Ap; GE 90f.)

Chavarga, Dr. Nicholas, Department of the Physical Faculty of Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod, Ukraine

Cherepennikov, Vladislav B., (newton-society at mail.ru), Russia

Claybourne, J. P., Orlando, FL, USA
(gom4; GE 90f.)

Coe, Lee (staunch SR-opponent since 1932), USA

Coon, W. Vincent, Salt Lake City, UT 84106, USA
(gom4; GE 94f.)

Cornille, Dr. Patrick, C.E.A. Centre de BIII, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel, France
(gom4; GE 98f., 00f.)

Couture, Christine, Ottawa, Canada

Crivelli, Franco, Switzerland

Crothers, Stephen J., Australia
(CNPS; gsj)

Cullwick, E.G. (defender of 3D physics), formerly Prof. of Engineering, St. Andrews, U.K.
(1957f., 1981 gom4+5)

Daskalow, Ljudmil, Germany
(CNPS)

de Bothezat, George, USA
(1930f. gom4+5)

de Carvalho, Luis Antonio V. & Luis Alberto V., Brazil
(GE 04, 05f.)

de Hilster, Robert, USA

De Mees, Thierry, Belgium
(gsj Editor)

Denisov, Prof. Anatoliy A., Dr.Sci.Tech., St. Petersburg Polytechnical Institute, Russia
(1989f. gom4+5; GE)

Derksen, Dipl.Ing., Norbert, D-78464 Konstanz, Germany
(1984 gom4; CNPS)

Deyssenroth, Dipl. Phys. Hans, Germany

Dingle, Herbert, Prof. of Natural Philosophy, Imperial College, London, U.K.
(1928f., 1981 gom4+5; gsj)

Dingler, Hugo
(1919f. gom4+5)

Dishington, Roland H., Pacific Palisades, CA 90272, USA
(gom4+5; Ap; GE 90)

Dissler, Walter, Dipl. Ing., Sonnewalde, Austria
(1971f. gom4)

Doran, Fred, Mississaugo, Ontario, Canada

Dring, Dr. Andrew R., Baltimore, MD 21234-5217, USA
(gom4; GE 96f.)

Duering, Gerd, Germany

Dulaney, Dr. Clarence L., USA
(gom4; GE 02)

Dunning, William, Clinton Corners, NY 12514, USA
(Ap; GE 93; 06)

Dürr, Dr. Karl, doctor of law, 6513 Monte Carasso, Switzerland
(1959f. gom4+5)

Edwards, Dr. J.C., medical doctor & polymath, editor of BASRA, Canada
(1987 gom4; gsj)

Ehlers, Hans-Joachim, Germany

Engelhardt, Dr.Wolfgang, retired from: Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85741 Garching, Germany
(CNPS; gsj)

Essen, Dr. Louis, Bookham, Surrey, UK
(1937f., 1989 gom4+5; gsj)

Evans, Dr. Melbourne G., Prof Em., USA
(1962f. gom4)

Ferrigno, Antonio, European Patent Office, 2280HV Rijswijk, Netherlands
(2001 gom4)

Fox, Hal, Ed. J. New Energy, Trenergy Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA
(CNPS)

Fricke, Hermann, Germany
(1920-1941 gom4+5)

Friebe, Dipl. Ing. Ekkehard (*1927), Regierungsdirektor i.R. (Deutsches Patentamt, Muenchen), 81737 München, Germany
(1985f. gom4; CNPS; gsj)

Friedländer, Salomo, Germany
(1930f. gom4+5)

Fritzius, Robert S., Starkville, MS 39759, USA

Galeczki, Dr. George, 51061 Cologne, Germany
(gom4+5; CNPS; Ap; bartml; GE 97, 03f.)

Gehrcke, Prof. Dr. Ernst (1878-1960), Germany
(1911f. gom4+5; CNPS; gsj)

Gerteis, Martel, Germany
(1982f. gom4+5)

Gifford, John F., Corrales, NM 87048, USA
(Ap)

Glaser, Ludwig C., Germany
(1920-22 gom4+5)

Glozic, Berislav, Germany
(2001 gom4+5)

Gonuguntla, Srinivasa Rao
(gsj)

Graneau, Neal, U.K.
(gom4; GE 94f.)

Graneau, Prof. Peter, Centre for Electromagnetics Research, Northeastern University , USA
(gom4+5; Ap; gsj)

Grimer, Francis J., Harrow HA3 0DA, U.K.

Gut, Dr. Bernardo (*1942), CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
(1978f. gom4+5; gsj)

Hannon, Robert J., Sarasota, FL 34238, USA
(gom4; CNPS; Ap; GE)

Hatch, Ronald R., Wilmington, CA 90744, USA
(CNPS Director; gom4+5)

Hayden, Dr. Howard C., Prof. Em. (Physics Research Group Affiliation Condensed Matter Physics) University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, U.S.A.; Ed., The Energy Advocate (96), former Ed., Galilean Electrodynamics
(1990f. gom4)

Hayes, Dr. Peter, University of Sunderland, UK

Hazelett, Richard, Colchester, VT 05446, USA
(gom4)

Hecht, Prof. Andreas, Germany

Hecht, Laurence, ed. 21st Century Science & Technology, Washington, D.C., USA

Hegedusic, Prof. Mladen
(1978f. gom4+5)

Henderson, Robert L., Sun City, AZ 8855351-1163, USA
(1972f. gom4+5; GE 99, 00)

Herrmann, Robert A., USA

Hill, Charles M.
(1990f. gom4; GE)

Hille, Helmut, Heilbronn, Germany
(CNPS)

Holmberg, Eric, London, U.K.
(1986 gom4+5)

Höpfner, Ludwig
(1921 gom4)

Hoppe, Helmut, Germany

Hoult, Robert Littleton
(1996 gom4+5)

Hüfner, Dr. Ing. Dipl. Phys. M., (Die Muggle-Bibliothek), Germany

Idestroem, Axel, Sweden
(1948 gom4+5)

Ivanchenko, Prof. G. E., Professor of Engineering (Deceased), Moscow, Russia
(1995f. gom4+5; 2001 GE)

Kalanov, Temur Z., Institute of Electronics, F.Hodjaev 33, 700143 Tashkent, Uzbekistan
(gsj)

Kammerer, E., Germany
(1957f. gom4+5)

Kanarev, Prof. Dr. Ph. M., Krasnodar, Russia;
(gom4; Ap; GE 92f.; gsj)

Kantor, Wallace, San Diego, CA 92120, USA
(1962f. gom4+5)

Kelly, Dr. Alphonsus G., Dublin 4, Ireland
(1993f. gom4+5; bartml)

Kempczynski, Jaroslav, Dept. Theoretical Physics, H. Niewodniczanski Inst. Nuclear Physics, 31 342 Krakow, Poland
(gom4; GE 93)

Kerr, Robert, Oro Valley, AZ 85737, USA

Keswani, Dr. G.H., New Delhi, India
(1965f. gom4)

Keys, C. Roy, ed., Apeiron, Montreal, Quebec H2W 2B2, Canada
(gom4; CNPS)

Kholmetskii, Alexander L., Dept. of Physics, Belarus State University, Minsk, Belarus
(gom4; Ap; GE 95f.)

Kim, Deuk-Soo, 48159 Münster, Germany
(1987 gom4)

Klyushin, Ya.G., Ph.D., Academy of Aviation, St. Petersburg, Russia (ed. Bd., Galilean Electronamics)
(CNPS; GE00f.)

Knapp, Wolfram, Germany
(1994 gom4)

Korneva, Maria V., Voronezh Scientific Research Institute of Communications, Voronezh, Russia
(gom4; Ap; GE 99f.)

Kosowski, Prof. Stanislaus, 00-849 Warsaw, Poland
(1978f. gom4; gsj)

Kraus, Gerhard, Bangkok, Thailand
(gom4+5)

Kraus, Oskar
(1919f. gom4)

Kressebuch, Hugo, Germany
(1963f. gom4)

Kulba, Leslee A., Farmington Hills, MI 48336, USA

Kuligin, Victor A., and Galina A., Dept. of Physics, State University of Voronezh, Russia
(gom4+5; Ap; GE 99f.)

Lamberty, Paul
(1925 gom4)

Lange, Erik J.
(CNPS; gsj)

Lange, Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang, Dresden, Germany
(CNPS; gsj)

Larson, Dr. Delbert J., USA
(gom4, GE 1995 correspondence)

(PDF) Lavrushkin, Vladimir P., Pskov, Russia
(CNPS; GE 05f.)

Ledesma, José Miguel, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Li, Zifeng (& Li Tianjiang Wang Changjin Tian Xinmin Wang Zhaoyun), Yanshan University, Hebei, Qinhuangdao,China

Li, Dr. Wen-Xiu, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Univ. of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P.R. China
(gom4; Ap; GE 99, 01)

Luttgens, Marcel, France
(gom4; CNPS; Ap)

MacDonald, Keith, Manley, Queensland 4179, Australia
(gom4; GE 91)

(PDF) Maco, Emil Andrej,
(1988 gom4)

Macrì, Rocco Vittorio, Assisi, Italy
(bartml)

MacRoberts, Donald T., Shreveport, LA, USA
(gom4; GE 92f.; gsj)

Majorana, Quirino (1871-1957), Prof., Dept. of Physics, Turin & Bologna; Italy
(1921f., 1956 gom4; CNPS; gsj)

Mallove, Dr. Eugene, ed. Infinite Energy, P.O. Box 2816, Concord, NH 033022-2816, USA
(CNPS)

{the website http://galeb.etf.bg.ac.yu/~malovic/ hass been identified as posing a security risk]
Malovic, Miodrag, Yugoslavia

Marinov, Dr. Stefan (1931-97) (1960-74 Ass.Prof. Physics, Sofia University, Bulgaria) Graz, Austria
(1974f. gom4+5)

Marinšek, Johann, 8530 Deutsch-Landsberg, Austria
(1989f. gom4+5)

Mark, Dr. Harry H., USA

Marklin, Dr. George J., Sugar Land, TX 77479, USA
(CNPS)

Markweger, Robert, Germany
(1999 gom4; CNPS)

Marlor, Dr. Guy A., San Carlos, CA 94070, USA

Marmet, Dr. Paul, Professor of Physics (deceased), Physics Department, University of Ottawa, Ontario KIN 6N5, Canada
(gom4+5; CNPS; Ap; bartml)

Marquardt, Dr. Peter, 50833 Cologne, Germany
(gom4; Ap)

Martens, Bernd-Rainer, Germany

Martin, Adolphe, Longueuil, Quebec J4J 3P9, Canada
(gom4; Ap)

Maurer, Harald, Elektrotechniker, Graz, Österreich
(CNPS)

Mayr, Luitpold, Germany
(CNPS)

McAlister, Joe F. and John W., Delray Beach, FL 33444, USA
(gom4; GE 92f.)

McCausland, Prof. Dr. Ian, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4
(1973f. gom4+5; Ap)

Mehta, Ardeshir, Ottawa, Canada
(CNPS; gsj)

Melcher, Prof. Dr. Dr. Horst, Potsdam, Germany

Milnes, Dr. Harold Willis, Editor, Toth-Maatian-Review, Lubbock, TX 79410, USA
(1979f. gom4; gsj)

Mitchell, William C., Institute for Advanced Cosmological Studies, Carson City, NV 89702, USA

Mitsopoulos, Dr. Theodore D., Athens 15669, Greece
(1988f. gom4; GE 98, 01; gsj)

Mocanu, Prof. C. I., formerly Head of Electrical Engineering Dept., Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, Romania
(gom4; Ap; GE 91f.)

Monti, Dr. Roberto A., Istituto TESRE - CNR, 40129 Bologna, Italy
(1988f. gom4; CNPS; bartml)

(PDF) Moody, Richard Jr., USA
(CNPS; gsj)

Morales, Dr. Juan Alberto, Malaga, Spain
(1968f. gom4+5; gsj)

Morales-Riveira, Dr. Enrique, Colombia

Moroz, Viktor N., NY, USA

Müller, Aloys, Germany
(1911f. gom4+5)

Müller, Berthold, Germany

Müller, Francisco J., Miami, FL 33144, USA
(1986f. gom4; bartml)

Müller, Wilhelm, Germany/Austria
(1941-63f.
gom4)

Munch, Neil E., Pres., Munch Engineering Corp., Montgomery Village, MD 20886, USA
founder member of NPA
(gom4; Ap; bartml; GE 96f.)

Munshi, Jamal, USA

Neiswander, Dr. Robert S., Cambria, CA 93428, USA
(gom4; GE 96f., 04)

Nerad, Dr. Ludek, Pecky, Czech Republic
(gom4; GE 97)

Neundorf, Wolfgang, D - 03054 Cottbus, Germany
(CNPS)

Newman, Alan, U.K.
(GE 06; gsj)

Noninski, Prof. Dr. Vesselin C., New York, NY 10011, USA

Nordenson, Harald, Prof. Phys, Chem., Sweden (+1980)
(1935-1969 gom4+5)

Noskov, Nikolai K., Russia

Novak, Gary E., USA

Nowak, Karl, Dipl. Ing., Vienna, Austria
(1942f. gom4+5)

Nutricati, Pompilio, Italy
(1998 gom4+5)

Oldershaw, Dr. Robert L., USA

Omeljanowskij, M. E.
(1973 gom4)

Oswald, Dietrich, Reutlingen, Germany
(1978 gom4+5)

Owen Sr., William H., Australia
(gom4; Ap)

Pagels, Kurt, Germany
(1979f. gom4+5; CNPS)

Palacios, Julio, Spain
(1953f, 1971 gom4+5)

Palmieri, Renato, Italy

Panarella, Dr. Emilio, Editor, Physics Essays, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada
(CNPS)

Parish, Leonard, U.K.
(1977f. gom4+5)

Parshin, Prof. Pavel Fyedorovich (Head of Dept. of Physics, Academy of Civil Aviation, St. Peterburg), Russia
(gom4; GE 91)

Pavlovic, Milan R., Belgrade, Yugoslavia
(2000 gom4; CNPS)

Pendleton, Alan, USA

Pernes, Dipl. Ing. Lothar, Germany
(CNPS)

Persson, John-Erik
(gom4; GE 99f.; gsj)

Peshchevitskiy, Prof. Boris Ivanovich, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
(1986f. gom4+5; GE 91f.)

Phipps Jr., Dr. Thomas E., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
(1973f. gom4+5; Ap; bartml; GE 91f.; gsj)

Physikus (Giordano B.), Germany

Podlaha, M. F.
(1977f. gom4)

Pohl, Manfred, Germany

Poor Charles Lane
(1921-30 gom4+5; gsj)

Preikschat, F. K., Germany
(1976f. gom4+5)

Preußker, Prof. Dr.-Ing. H., Halstenbek, Germany
(1994 gom4)

Quiring, Heinrich, Germany
(1952f. gom4+5)

Rado, Steven, Los Angeles, CA 90035, USA
(CNPS)

Raju, Chandra Kant, India
(CNPS)

Rasper, Johannes (Dipl. Math.), Germany

Ratcliffe, Hilton, U.K.

Rehmann, Dr. Günter, Düsseldorf, Germany
(1958f. gom4+5)

Reising, Martin, Offenbach/Main, Germany
(1987f. gom4+5)

Renshaw, Curtis E., Tele-Consultants, Inc., Alpharetta, GA 30005, USA
(gom4; Ap; GE 96f.)

Rey, Francis R. J., Toulon, France
(gom4)

Riem, Prof. Johannes
(1920f. gom4)

Ripota, Dipl. Ing. Peter, Redakteur P.M. Magazin, Germany
(1997f. gom4; CNPS)

Rohmer, Reinhard, Dipl. Ing. (FH), Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany
(1996f. gom4+5)

Romalo, Dan, Romania

Rösch, Peter, OStR, D-76709 Kronau, Germany

Rudakov, Dr. N., P.O. Box 723, Geelong, Victoria 3213, Australia
(1981 gom4+5)

Rydin, Roger A., Assoc. Prof. Em. Nucl. Eng. , USA
(CNPS)

Ryzhkov, L., Kiev Polytechnical Institute, Ukraine
(1991 gom4)

Sanborn, Herbert C.
(1956 gom4)

Sapper, Prof. Dr. Karl, Graz, Austria
(1939f., 1952f. gom4+5)

Schauer, Dipl. Phys., Lorenz, Germany

Schneider, Horst, 03096 Burg/Spreewald, Germany
(1981 gom4+5)

Schock, Rolf, Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044 Stockholm 70, Sweden
(1981f. gom4)

Sekerin, Dr. Vladimir Illich, Novosibirsk, Russia
(1991 gom4+5)

Selleri, Prof. Franco, Physics Department, University of Bari, Italy
(gom4; Ap)
Prof. Selleri is listed as a learned participant in "critical" events; his own attempts to formulate alternative time-bending formalisms hardly qualify him as a defender of common sense.

Severi, Francesco, Italy
(1924f. gom4)

Sharma, Prof. Rati Ram, India
(gsj)

Shimmin, William "Lee", Houston, TX 77055-6933, USA
(gom4; GE 94)

Shpitalnaya, Dr. Alexandra A., St. Petersburg Oberservatory, Russia

Siepmann, Dr. James P., ed. Journal of Theoretics, Oshkosh, WI 54904, USA
(CNPS)

Sintini, Amleto, Italy
(1970 gom4+5)

Smid, Dr. Thomas, UK
(CNPS)

Smirnov, Prof. Anatoly P., St. Petersburg, Russia
(CNPS)

Smith, Prof. Joseph Wayne, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Adelaide, Australia
(1985 gom4)

Smulsky, Prof. Joseph J., Institute of Earth Cryosphere, Tyumen, Russia
(CNPS; 1988f. gom4+5; gsj)

Sprecic, Mustafa, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Stoinov, Dimiter G., Sofia, Bulgaria
(GE; gsj1 and gsj2)

Strehl, Prof. Dr. Karl
(1921f. gom4)

Strel'tsov, Dr. V. N., Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980, Russia
(gom4+5; Ap; GE 98f., 00f., 05)

Suhorukov, G.I., E.G., and R.G., Bratsk State Technical University, Russia
(gsj)

Tedenstig, Ove, S-19 551 Märsta, Sweden
(gom4; CNPS; GE 91f.; gsj)

Teppo, Karl, Mermaid Waters 4218, Queensland, Australia
(Ap)

Theimer, Dr. Walter, Germany
(1977f. gom4+5)

Thim, Dr. Hartwig W., Prof. Em. Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria

Thompson, Caroline, UK
(2002 gom4)

Thornhill, Dr. Charles Kenneth, Australia

Tolchel'nikova-Murri, Dr. Svetlana A., Central Astronomical Observatory, Pulkovo, Russia
(gom4; bartml; GE 92f.)

Tombe, Prof. F. David, Belfast BT15 5HU, Northern Ireland, U.K.
(GE 92f.; gsj)

Tonini, Valerio, Italy
(1948f. gom4+5)

Turzyniecki, Kazimierz, Warsaw, Poland

Twiss, Frank, Sammamish, WA 98075, USA
(GE 92f.)

Vogtherr, Karl, Germany
(1921f. gom4+5)

Vukelja, Aleksandar, Kac, Serbia & Montenegro
(CNPS)

Wallace, Dr. Bryan G., St. Petersburg, FL 33710, USA
(1969f. gom4+5)

Wanek, Dr. Erich, Germany
(1962 gom4)

Wankow, Borislaw, Sofia, Bulgaria

Weitzel, Donald F., Winnetka, CA 91306, USA
(gom4; GE 96f., 02)

Wesley, Dr. J. Paul (Publisher of Global Dissident Physics Survey), Germany
(1968f. gom4+5; Ap; bartml)

Whitney, Dr. Cynthia Kolb (*1941), Editor: Galilean Electrodynamics, Space Time Analyses Ltd., Arlington, MA 02176-7331, USA
(gom4; Ap)

Wittke, Ernest C., USA

Xu Shaozhi, Dr., Beijing Control Device Research Institute, P.R. China
(gom4; Ap; GE 92f.)

Xu Xiangqun, Dr., Beijing, P.R. China
(gom4; Ap)

Zapffe, Dr. Carl A.
(1977f. gom4+5; gsj)

Zeng, Prof. Qingping, China

Zhuck, Dr. Nikolay A., Ed.-in-Chief Spacetime & Substance, Kharkiv, Ukraine
(CNPS)

Zweig, Dr. Hans J.
(CNPS)


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